Razib Khan One-stop-shopping for all of my content

August 31, 2012

The cheating of the chosen

Filed under: Culture,Harvard — Razib Khan @ 10:44 am

Update: Harvard Students in Cheating Scandal Say Collaboration Was Accepted.

Harvard Says 125 Students May Have Cheated on a Final Exam:

Officials said that nearly half of the more than 250 students in the class were under investigation by the Harvard College Administrative Board and that if they were found to have cheated, they could be suspended for a year. The students have been notified that they are suspected and will be called to give their accounts in investigative hearings.

“This is unprecedented in its scope and magnitude,” said Jay Harris, the dean of undergraduate education.

Administrators would not reveal the name of the class or even the department, saying that they wanted to protect the identities of the accused students. The Harvard Crimson, the university’s student newspaper, reported that it was a government class, Introduction to Congress, which had 279 students, and that it was taught by Matthew B. Platt, an assistant professor.

Anyone have opinions on this? I know plenty of readers are in the local area in various capacities. My working assumption is that these kids will get off with a slap on the wrist. The meritocracy does not eat its own young. With such widespread cheating in this course ...

Deep dive into the Denisovans

Filed under: denisovan,Genomics,Human Genetics,Human Genomics — Razib Khan @ 12:25 am

By now you have probably seen the new Denisovan paper in the media. John Hawks has an excellent overview, as you’d expect. The only thing I will add is to reiterate that I think population movements in near and far prehistory significantly obscure our comprehension of the patterns of past genetic variation. One reason that the Denisova hominin presents conundrums (e.g., how did Australians and Melanesians admix with a population whose only remains are found in Siberia) is that we’re viewing it through the lens of the present. What other lens can we view it through? We’re not time travelers. But we should be perhaps more conscious of the filter which that imposes upon our perception and model of the world. This is probably a time when it is best to have only a modest confidence in any given proposition about the prehistoric past.

Also, I don’t know why, but I much like this tree:

August 30, 2012

Being fat is like being gay (?)

Filed under: Health — Razib Khan @ 11:21 pm

Anti-obesity: The new homophobia?:

Consider the many parallels between the treatments advocated by those who claim being gay is a disease, and those being pushed by our public health establishment to “cure” fat children and adults of their supposedly pathological state.

The advocates of so-called conversion or reparative therapy believe that “homosexuality” is a curable condition, and that a key to successful treatment is that patients must want to be cured, which is to say they consider same-sex sexual orientation volitional. These beliefs mirror precisely those of the obesity establishment, which claims to offer the means by which fat people who want to choose to stop being fat can successfully make that choice.

Those who seek to cure homosexuality and obesity have tended to react to the failure of their attempts by demanding ever more radical interventions. For example, in the 1950s Edmund Bergler, the most influential psychoanalytical theorist of homosexuality of his era, bullied and berated his clients, violated patient confidentiality and renounced his earlier, more tolerant attitude toward gay people as a form of enabling. Meanwhile, earlier this year a Harvard biology professor declared in a public lecture that Mrs. Obama’s call for voluntary lifestyle changes on the part of ...

Enough with the double standard

Filed under: Culture,Feminism — Razib Khan @ 10:13 pm

Most of the conventionally liberal readers of this weblog would probably term me anti-feminist. I believe that there are sex differences, and that these are important in the way we arrange policy and our personal lives. But I’m really pissed off by the double-standards which have been baked-into-the-cake of what we term “patriarchy.” Yes, I believe men and women are different, but both are equal in their freedoms, humans with individual will, and both have independent agency and role in life.

This is the kind of crap I really hate. Are Aysel and Arash Muslims?:

Aysel totally not, she is not muslim because she doesnt follow islamic lifestyle and ddresses up in kaffir way, but Arash could be muslim, still not sure.

What exactly makes Arash any less kaffir than Aysel? Simple: Muslim women must comport themselves in a manner which befits their role as totems for Islamic culture. Women, children, racial minorities, we are not fucking totems and tokens. People differ, and I do not mean to collapse or minimize real human differences. That’s why I’m a conservative. But infantilization and turning individuals purely into instrumental symbols for a civilization has got to stop. Enough!

You better have a fucking goat-beard and have a boy-lover if you’re going to go around calling people kaffir.

Share

Quantifying the great flip

Filed under: Politics — Razib Khan @ 12:13 am

The two maps above show the Democratic and Republican counties in blue and red respectively. Carter in the 1976 presidential election, and Obama in 2008. A few days ago it was brought to my attention that Matt Yglesias was curious about how Maine become a Democratic leaning state in the past generation. How is a deep question I’ll leave to political scientists, but how about the patterns of voting Democratic over elections by state for the past 100 years? That’s not too hard to find, there’s state-level election data online. So I just calculated the correlations between past elections and Democratic results, and Obama’s performance in 2008. If you’re a junkie of political science I assume you’ve seen something like this….

 

There is county level data out there, but it is hard to find the older stuff online. If you have some, especially the 1856 election, please contact me! If not, and you want to enter the data in by hand (you can find it in most libraries), I am willing to pay (I tried doing this once, but found it ...

August 29, 2012

Evolution: its ideological own refutation

Filed under: Evolution,Idiocracy — Razib Khan @ 10:24 pm

 

Recently I stumbled upon the fact that Honey Boo Boo‘s sister had a child at age 18. The grandmother, Honey Boo Boo’s mother, is 33 years old. Younger than I am! Then I see headlines in trashy British tabloids of the form: The three men who have fathered 78 children with 46 different women… and they’re not paying child support to any of them. Here I am, in the fullness of man-childhood, a new father, groping to understand evolutionary process in all its glory, and here are they who live evolution! There are those around us who don’t blink at maximizing their fitness in the modern world. Here’s some data from the GSS:

Humans developed from animals Number of children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more TRUE 64.2 55.6 50.7 41.5 35.1 40.7 32.2 FALSE 35.8 44.4 49.3 58.5 64.9 59.3 67.8

Age when first child born
18 and under 19 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 and above

TRUE 56.6 40.1 54.2 59.2 68
FALSE 43.4 59.9 45.8 40.8 32

Go teen parents! Maybe?

Evolution: its ideological own refutation

Filed under: Evolution — Razib Khan @ 10:24 pm

 

Recently I stumbled upon the fact that Honey Boo Boo‘s sister had a child at age 18. The grandmother, Honey Boo Boo’s mother, is 33 years old. Younger than I am! Then I see headlines in trashy British tabloids of the form: The three men who have fathered 78 children with 46 different women… and they’re not paying child support to any of them. Here I am, in the fullness of man-childhood, a new father, groping to understand evolutionary process in all its glory, and here are they who live evolution! There are those around us who don’t blink at maximizing their fitness in the modern world. Here’s some data from the GSS:

Humans developed from animals Number of children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more TRUE 64.2 55.6 50.7 41.5 35.1 40.7 32.2 FALSE 35.8 44.4 49.3 58.5 64.9 59.3 67.8

Age when first child born
18 and under 19 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 and above

TRUE 56.6 40.1 54.2 59.2 68
FALSE 43.4 59.9 45.8 40.8 32

Go teen parents! Maybe?

The future of the three “Pakistans”

Filed under: Data Analysis,Demographics,India,Pakistan,Population — Razib Khan @ 9:55 pm

Over at Econlog Bryan Caplan bets that India’s fertility will be sup-replacement within 20 years. My first inclination was to think that this was a totally easy call for Caplan to make. After all, much of southern India, and the northwest, is already sup-replacement. And then I realized that heterogeneity is a major issue. This is a big problem I see with political and social analysis. Large nations are social aggregations that are not always comparable to smaller nations (e.g., “Sweden has such incredible social metrics compared to the United States”; the appropriate analogy is the European Union as a whole).


So, for example, India obviously went ahead with its demographic transition earlier than Pakistan. But what this masks is that the two largest states in terms of population in India, in the far north, actually resemble Pakistan in demographics, not the rest of India. Uttar Pradesh, with a population 20 million larger than Pakistan, has similar fertility rate as India’s western neighbor. Bihar currently has a slightly higher fertility rate than Pakistan when you look at online sources (though the proportion under 25 is a little lower, indicating that its fertility 10-15 years ago was lower than Pakistan’s, ...

The future of the three “Pakistans”

Filed under: Data Analysis,Demographics,India,Pakistan,Population — Razib Khan @ 9:55 pm

Over at Econlog Bryan Caplan bets that India’s fertility will be sup-replacement within 20 years. My first inclination was to think that this was a totally easy call for Caplan to make. After all, much of southern India, and the northwest, is already sup-replacement. And then I realized that heterogeneity is a major issue. This is a big problem I see with political and social analysis. Large nations are social aggregations that are not always comparable to smaller nations (e.g., “Sweden has such incredible social metrics compared to the United States”; the appropriate analogy is the European Union as a whole).


So, for example, India obviously went ahead with its demographic transition earlier than Pakistan. But what this masks is that the two largest states in terms of population in India, in the far north, actually resemble Pakistan in demographics, not the rest of India. Uttar Pradesh, with a population 20 million larger than Pakistan, has similar fertility rate as India’s western neighbor. Bihar currently has a slightly higher fertility rate than Pakistan when you look at online sources (though the proportion under 25 is a little lower, indicating that its fertility 10-15 years ago was lower than Pakistan’s, ...

The eternal question of calorie restriction

Filed under: calorie restriction,Diet,Health — Razib Khan @ 8:22 pm

There’s a lot of buzz about a new paper in Nature (yes, I know there’s always buzz about some Nature paper or other), Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study. You’ve probably heard about calorie restriction before. For me the issue I have with it is that people who are very knowledgeable (i.e., researchers who know a great deal abut human physiology, etc.) have given me contradictory assessments of this strategy of life extension. But it’s not totally crazy, there are serious scientists at top-tier universities who practice calorie restriction themselves. This isn’t the final word, but I wouldn’t be surprised if it is going to take decades for it to resolve itself for humans specifically (because some people will always be, and perhaps rightly, extrapolating from short-lived organisms to humans when it comes to modulations of lifespan in the laboratory).  The New York Times piece had a really strange coda:

Dr. de Cabo, who says he is overweight, advised people that if they want to try a reduced-calorie diet, they should consult a doctor first. If they can handle such a diet, he said, he believes they would be healthier, ...

August 28, 2012

What I do is what I do

Filed under: Blog,Navel gazing — Razib Khan @ 11:31 pm

This morning on Twitter the estimable Carl Zimmer stated that I had “reported” on the recent paper on European skin pigmentation evolution. I wondered, wait, am I a reporter? I don’t really know, and this really is rooted in the “am I a journalist” thread. I’m starting to get worn down by those who claim I am a journalist. My main issue is that once you’re pegged as a journalist, you’re held to journalistic standards. So, for example, people might demand that I selectively misquote and misrepresent the opinions of others, because I might alienate readership by telling them what I think, instead of using mouthpieces who I don’t even bother depicting with any accuracy. I’m only half-kidding here. I’ve had great experiences with journalists, and not so great experiences. I really, really, hate it when people go fishing for quotes to fit their story arc.

In regards to papers, I don’t exactly take the tack of someone like Ed Yong or Dave Munger. I’m just a guy offering my own unvarnished opinions, and the reality is what I do “on the blog” intersects strongly with the way I talk and behave in “real life.” If this blog ...

Not all genes are created the same

The map to the right shows the frequencies of HGDP populations on SLC45A2, which is a locus that has been implicated in skin color variation in humans. It’s for the SNP rs16891982, and I yanked the figure from IrisPlex: A sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information. Brown represents the genotype CC, green CG, and blue, GG. Europeans who have olive skin often carry the minor allele, C. While SLC24A5 is really bad at distinguishing West Eurasians from each other, SLC45A2 is better. Though both are fixed in Northern Europe, the former stays operationally fixed in frequency outside of Europe, in the Near East. As I stated earlier the proportions of the ancestral SNP in the Middle Eastern populations in the HGDP seem to be easily explained by the Sub-Saharan admixture you can find in these groups.

In contrast major SNPs in SLC45A2 are closer to disjoint between Europeans and South Asians. For example I’m a homozygote for the C allele. And yet even here we need ...

A political animal in the genes

Filed under: Behavior Genetics — Razib Khan @ 8:49 pm

Trends in Genetics has a review article, The genetics of politics: discovery, challenges, and progress. The main reason I point to these sorts of papers isn’t that I think they’re revolutionary. Usually they aren’t. Rather, the public domain has totally forgotten about this domain of study. Most of the informed and high-toned discussion presumes that almost everything of worthy note is socially constructed. If not, then the counterpoint is a crude caricature of genetic determinism which is refutable in a blink of the eye. It’s as if someone was commissioned to paint R. Daneel Olivaw, and ended up using crayon to sketch out the Frankenstein monster.

For example, in sex differences the public debate veers between evolutionary psychological Leave It To Beaver, pre-scientific cultural traditionalism, and de facto Blank Slatism. On the one hand you have to deal with people who use “scare quotes” around the “highly speculative” “hypothesis” that males have a greater tendency toward inter-personal physical aggression than females (including in the comments of this blog, so spare with lectures about how this is a marginal perspective; I’m pretty sure I talk to people about behavior genetics a lot more than you do, though if not I’d ...

Evolutionary & population genetics preprints – Haldane’s Sieve

OK, perhaps I can help with that. Dr. Coop speaks of the collaboration between himself & Dr. Joseph Pickrell, Haldane’s Sieve, which I added to my RSS days ago (and you can see me pushing it to my Pinboard). From the “About”:

As described above, most posts to Haldane’s Sieve will be basic descriptions of relevant preprints, with little to no commentary. All posts will have comment sections where discussion of the papers will be welcome. A second type of post will be detailed comments on a preprint of particular interest to a contributor. These posts could take the style of a journal review, or may simply be some brief comments. We hope they will provide useful feedback to the authors of the preprint. Finally, there will be posts by authors of preprints in which they describe their work and place it in broader context.

We ask the commenters to remember that by submitting articles to preprint servers the authors (often biologists) are taking a somewhat unusual step. Therefore, comments should be phrased in a constructive manner to aid the authors.

It might be helpful if other evolution/genetics bloggers ...

August 27, 2012

Back to the 70s?

Filed under: 1970s,Culture — Razib Khan @ 11:35 pm

Peter Turchin has basically implied that it’s 1970 again, and we’re in for a new age of disturbance. I’m rather skeptical…but, today a co-worker pointed out that I have “70s hair.” My sideburns, yes, but that’s just Gen-X irony or whatever. But she argued that there was a notable pre-1980 shagginess to my hair. Off to the barbershop! And yet…look at the mops that One Direction is sporting. When I last spoke about this group I wasn’t even aware that the group is already big in the United States! Am I old enough now that the styles of my pre-conscious age are now creeping back into fashion? Though I would still bet against polyester and plaid, perhaps David Frum’s unread book about the 1970s will start selling a few copies soon.

A note on open genomics

Filed under: Genomics,Open genomics — Razib Khan @ 11:25 pm

A few months ago I purchased a decent desktop just to crunch ADMIXTURE and other packages to analyze genomic data. More recently I set up a ~100 GB Dropbox account, and have started to “push” all of my output files from ADMIXTURE, PLINK, etc., as well as various scripts (Perl, shell, R, etc.) into the public folder (more precisely, a script is running ADMIXTURE and moving the files into the appropriate Dropbox folders as I type this, and Dropbox syncs with the online folders). I’m doing this for two reasons.

First, I want to make the pipeline of data generation easier for me. Instead of running ADMIXTURE, and then processing the files laboriously with R to generate plots, I’ve now created a system where a few automated scripts begin ADMIXTURE runs, and then another script creates files for distruct, and runs distruct, and then trims the images output and converts them into PNGs. This should allow me to resurrect my side projects, even while I’m rather busy with the “main events” of my life.

Second, I am beginning to feel that the promise of the “genome blogging revolution” kind of faded out. Granted, there’s only so much you can do with ...

Europeans got less shaded in stages

The Pith: the evolution of lighter skin is complex, and seems to have occurred in stages. The current European phenotype may date to the end of the last Ice Age.

A new paper in Molecular Biology and Evolution, The timing of pigmentation lightening in Europeans, is rather interesting. It’s important because skin pigmentation has been one of the major successes of the first age of human genomics. In 2002 we really didn’t know the nature of normal human variation in skin color in terms of specific genes (basically, we knew about MC1R). This is what Armand Leroi observed in Mutants in 2005, wondering about our ignorance of such a salient trait. Within a few years though Leroi’s contention was out of date (in fact, while Mutants was going to press it became out of date) . Today we do know the genetic architecture of pigmentation. This is why GEDmatch can predict that my daughter’s eyes will be light brown from just her SNPs (they are currently hazel). This genomic yield was facilitated by the fact that pigmentation seems to be a trait where most human variation is ...

August 26, 2012

Non-whites consistent on “life” issues

Filed under: Data Analysis,Death Penalty,Ethics — Razib Khan @ 11:07 pm

Over at Darwin Catholic a commenter asked whether a pro-choice commenter on this weblog also supported the death penalty. I presume that they were here pointing to the consistent life ethic issue. Many liberals who oppose capital punishment support abortion rights, and many conservatives who support capital punishment oppose abortion rights. These camps both have their viewpoints, which I’m not interested in re-litigating in the comments. But I was curious as to the overall societal support for the combinations of positions.

So I looked at the GSS, using the CAPPUN and ABANY variables (capital punishment, and abortion for any reason). In this post I will show you screenshots of the GSS output. It’s ugly, but it shows you deviation away from the expected proportions. Basically, if two variables are independent you can predict what you’d expect to be the crossed percentages over the four cells. If the results deviate from that you can ascertain particular associations. In the GSS output red means that the cell has a higher value than it should, and blue a lower value. Additionally, the intensity signals the magnitude of the deviation. I limited all results to the year 2000 and later.

First, the general aggregate ...

A circumcision compromise?

Filed under: Circumcision,Health,public health — Razib Khan @ 9:17 pm

The New York Times has a piece on an update to the American Academy of Pediatrics position statement on circumcision (shifting toward a more pro-circumcision position of neutrality). In the United States the rates of circumcision for infant boys has gone from 80-90% to ~50% (there are regional variations, so only a minority of boys in the Pacific Northwest are circumcised). A few years ago Jesse Bering put up a post, Is male circumcision a humanitarian act?, where he actually wrote “Nobody knows where your child will live as an adult (perhaps Africa), or how rampant HIV will be there….” I like taking probabilities into account, but this is ridiculous.

Let’s ignore Jewish ritual circumcision, which has to be done in early infancy from what I know. The vast majority of the world’s circumcised men live in Africa and the Muslim world, with a substantial minority in the USA and American-influenced cultures.* So you don’t need to focus on infant circumcision at all. In Turkey circumcision is performed on boys who are considerably older. I understand that an 11 year old boy is not an adult, but if sexually transmitted diseases are your primary concern, then why not ...

A circumcision compromise?

Filed under: Circumcision,Health,public health — Razib Khan @ 9:17 pm

The New York Times has a piece on an update to the American Academy of Pediatrics position statement on circumcision (shifting toward a more pro-circumcision position of neutrality). In the United States the rates of circumcision for infant boys has gone from 80-90% to ~50% (there are regional variations, so only a minority of boys in the Pacific Northwest are circumcised). A few years ago Jesse Bering put up a post, Is male circumcision a humanitarian act?, where he actually wrote “Nobody knows where your child will live as an adult (perhaps Africa), or how rampant HIV will be there….” I like taking probabilities into account, but this is ridiculous.

Let’s ignore Jewish ritual circumcision, which has to be done in early infancy from what I know. The vast majority of the world’s circumcised men live in Africa and the Muslim world, with a substantial minority in the USA and American-influenced cultures.* So you don’t need to focus on infant circumcision at all. In Turkey circumcision is performed on boys who are considerably older. I understand that an 11 year old boy is not an adult, but if sexually transmitted diseases are your primary concern, then why not ...

Older Posts »

Powered by WordPress